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Arizona is a hotbed of election denial and voter suppression activity—from armed ballot drop box vigilantes to candidates pushing the “Big Lie” that the 2020 election was stolen.

Another effort adds a new wrinkle – the claim that the upcoming Arizona election is already illegal and that a means to overturn the election exists independent of whether fraud can be documented or even alleged.

The anti-Muslim group Act for America (ACT) is amplifying this scheme. ACT claims to have “joined forces” with Arizona Corporations Commissioner Jim O’Connor, Michael Schafer of the election denial group, 2020 is Nullified, and indicted Colorado Clerk Tina Peters.

Key players in the effort have received support from The America Project, the far-right election denial outfit headed by the brother of former Trump national security advisor Michael Flynn.

Mobilizing the Islamophobes

This effort was boosted last month in an email sent by Act for America, a Virginia Beach, Virginia-based 501(c)4 non-profit best known for bigoted vitriol directed at Muslims. In 2017, Act for America held armed “march against sharia” events in Phoenix and other cities, drawing Proud Boys, Oath Keepers, and other far-rightists.

A Proud Boy, Patriot Prayer’s Joey Gibson and armed Oath Keepers at a 2017 “March Against Sharia” in Seattle

On October 18, ACT emailed members to announce a national campaign to pressure local election officials to ban election machines. The group boasted it was “sending nearly 481,000 action emails to 110 local officials in two weeks!”[1]

The ACT-announced campaign is most aggressively targeting Arizona, the Islamophobic group joining forces with a project claiming that elections in 2018, 2019, and 2020 were illegal.

Falsely declaring that “All machines are a national cyber security risk that is unsecure, hackable, and inaccurate!” ACT called on “all Arizona County Officials across the state to ban the use of all electronic voting machines, including ballot tabulators, in this upcoming election.”

ACT continued, “We need to flood these officials with our call to action! Take 2 minutes to click to send an email, sign our petition, post to social media, and make a phone call today!” This must be done, ACT says, to “prevent a repeat of the Arizona General 2020 Election.”[2]

The group claimed, “Board of Supervisors presentations have been made in Pinal and Pima County, the decision makers that can order a hand count election.”[3] In addition, ACT claims to have picked up allies when two Cochise County Supervisors, under pressure from election deniers, authorized a hand count of ballots in the coming election.

Act for America further claimed that Supervisor Peggy Judd received more than 4,400 emails before leading the effort for a hand count (a method subject to human error and found less accurate than voting machines).[4]

Jim O’Connor

The Arizona Corporations Commission (ACC) is a governmental entity with no role in governing elections. However, thanks to ACC Commissioner Jim O’Connor, it finds itself in the middle of the effort to declare elections conducted by machines illegal.

Jim O’Connor was elected in November 2020 to a four-year term on the Arizona Corporations Commission (ACC), a body charged with overseeing utility, railroad, and pipeline systems, promoting economic growth, and protecting Arizonans in the securities marketplace.[5]

Arizona Corporations Commissioner Jim O’Connor

O’Connor is using the status of his office to further the election denial cause. Act for America lauded the commissioner’s role: “Jim O’Connor, Arizona State Commissioner, has distributed an official letter to every county official calling on them to conduct the Midterm elections by paper ballots processed by hand count.”[6]

The letter, which also went to sheriffs in the state, falsely alleged that voting “machines have been shown to be unreliable.” O’Connor claimed the letter was inspired by having “spent two entire days listening to testimony given publicly at ‘The Moment of Truth Summit’”—election denier Mike Lindell’s conspiracy confab that featured, among others, Richard Mack of the Constitutional Sheriffs and Peace Officers Association (CSPOA).[7]

O’Connor has also espoused far-right conspiracy theories and acted on them. As Corporations Commissioner, O’Connor moved to block Arizona utilities from requiring COVID-19 vaccines. On the election denial front, he engaged in a common tact seen among COVID deniers – placing Satanic and Hitler-like motives behind the things he opposes.[8] O’Connor hosted an event featuring opponents of voting machines, where he declared, “These machines are from the devil.”[9] He responded to a speaker whose election fraud lawsuit was dismissed by saying,

“It appears that all the courts in our states at the federal and state level don’t want to handle the political question…They’re all sitting scared, thinking, ‘What are the people gonna do?’ So, they’re creating an Adolf Hitler-like (atmosphere), controlling speech.”[10]

Such views fit O’Connor’s pedigree as a “partner” in the Pinnacle Forum, as described in his ACC biography. Pinnacle Forum was “inspired” by 1970s Christian Right leader Bill Bright, the founder of the Campus Crusade for Christ.[11]

Tina Peters and Far-Right Sheriffs

One big name in this election denial effort is Tina Peters—the Mesa County, Colorado, Clerk and Recorder indicted by a grand jury of seven felony and three misdemeanor charges connected to allowing an unauthorized person to access voting machines. Peters admitted to taking photos and videos of a software update, and authorizing a “consultant” to make copies of the hard drive. Photos and videos later showed up online. Peters pled not guilty to the charges.[12]

Peters’s role in the new Act for America effort was characterized as “getting the word out on the crisis uncovered in the state of Colorado and any state using Dominion voting machines” through the video Selection Code.”[13]

On October 25, Peters appeared on The Sheriff Mack Show of far-right former Arizona sheriff and CSPOA leader Richard Mack, in part to promote Selection Code—the latest election denial video, this one produced by Mike Lindell, which features Peters and spurious allegations of manipulation of voting machines to rig elections.[14]

On the show, Peters said, “[S]heriffs are so important and Sheriff Mack, and what you are doing with, with the Constitutional Sheriffs and Peace Officers Association, and all the rest of the sheriffs that are involved in this, is so important.”[15]

Tina Peters (far right) on the “Sheriff Mack Show”

CSPOA is best known for promoting the Posse Comitatus-style, anti-democratic scheme that sheriffs can trump federal and state laws in their respective counties. In addition to having documented ties to racism, antisemitism, and the insurrectionist Oath Keepers and promoting radical assaults on federal civil rights authority, Mack’s Constitutional Sheriffs and Peace Officers Association is currently engaged in a national effort to organize sheriffs to intervene in elections based on the debunked video 2000 Mules. CSPOA is joined in this effort by Protect America Now (PAN), a far-right group led by Pinal County Sheriff Mark Lamb. Both groups have joined with the Tea Party-descended True the Vote to mobilize sheriffs in national “electoral fraud” efforts.

A recent report by the Arizona Center for Investigative Reporting found that at least eight Arizona sheriffs have allied in some form with the so-called “constitutional sheriffs” movement – a movement defined not by its devotion to the actual Constitution but to the Posse Comitatus and CSPOA-style notion that sheriffs can nullify state and federal laws.[16]

Michael Schafer and 2020 is Nullified

Another disturbing feature of this Arizona-centered coalition is its alliance with Michael Schafer’s 2020 is Nullified, a project that also includes a link to Act for America’s Arizona ballot machine project on its website.[17] 2020 is Nullified boosts the idea that Arizona’s 2018, 2019, and 2020 elections were “stolen” and aims to overturn the 2020 election across the state. Like the election denial movement writ large, its efforts are rooted not simply in concern for legal technicalities but in a far-right, Manichean view of a world starkly divided into good versus evil:

“EVIL WILL NOT STOP ITSELF…The government has turned on us! SWAMP THE SWAMP. Courage is contagious! TAKE ACTION NOW to get rid of the voting machines in Arizona. The root cause of our 2018, 2020, 2022 Stolen Elections…By law, the Arizona 2020 election is nullified based on uncertified voting machines producing only illegal votes…Call & Email your Representatives to Demand Impeachment of Katie Hobbs.”[18]

The group claims that there is a “clear path to Arizona election nullification…that does not require the fraud evidence…Part of this focused effort is on fixing the 2020 election by declaring it nullified as it was illegitimate, fraudulent, un-certifiable, unconstitutional, and unlawful.”[19]

“The catalyst to this effort,” 2020 is Nullified continued, “was a Writ of Mandamus (where People request the Court to mandate elected officer(s) to perform their duties constitutionally and lawfully and uphold their oath of office) that was submitted to the Arizona Supreme Court by a 2020 candidate and two other concerned citizens of Arizona… We assert the Writ of Mandamus is the right legal tool.”[20]

The case in question was an October 21, 2021, petition for a Writ of Mandamus filed pro se by Daniel Wood, Rayana B. Eldan, and Brian Steiner, alleging that voting machines used in the 2020 elections were not properly certified. The trio argued that “the 2020 elections are illegal, and no declaration, signature, certification or seal under the illegal acts can be valid.” In addition to Secretary of State Katie Hobbs, the petition also named as respondents the Boards of Supervisors and County Clerks from Pima, Maricopa, and Pinal Counties – calling on Hobbs to de-certify all state-certified candidates and the respective county officials to do the same for their jurisdictions.[21]

Daniel Wood (center) and Michael Schafer (far right) talk elections

In November 2021, the Arizona Supreme Court rejected the petition because it had not been filed within five days of the election. The Court also noted that Wood and company had “alleged no basis for relief under which they may obtain an order directing state officials to ‘rescind’ prior elections or to remove elected office holders from office.”[22]

In August 2021, Daniel Wood, Brian Steiner, and Paul Rice had filed a more narrow Writ of Mandamus petition, this time calling on the Arizona Supreme Court to recall Joe Biden’s electors, remove the Maricopa County votes from the 2020 presidential election, and “order Maricopa County to rerun the Arizona 2020 presidential election,” using paper ballots and omitting “Zuckerboxes” and “‘no excuse’ mail-in ballots.”[23] The Court dismissed the case on the grounds that it was “untimely” and the petitioners had,

“cited no authority for the proposition that they or anyone else may overturn the Arizona statutes that govern both the conduct of elections and the challenges to the results of such elections. Likewise, they cannot dictate the terms of a proposed effort to ‘rerun the 2020 presidential election,’ which was certified almost two years ago.”[24]

As their strategy developed, some of the same petitioners were also involved in a May 2021 effort to overturn the 2020 election using a “Quo Warranto” filing with the Arizona Supreme Court – a legal action used to dispute an individual’s right to hold an office. They targeted 19 elected officials, including Governor Doug Ducey, Secretary of State Katie Hobbs, two sheriffs, two mayors, four Corporations Commissioners, and six state legislators, the group even submitting a list of replacements for the sitting officials they deemed illegitimate.

The state Supreme Court also rejected that case, and the Elections Assistance Commission confirmed that the certifications in question remained in place while the companies were undergoing review. The Court stressed precedents stating that elections will not be overturned for “mere irregularities” or “honest mistakes or omissions” if the result would have been unaffected.[25]

A copy of that filing circulated by Daniel Wood stated, “If successful, this can be a precedent for filing with the US Supreme Court a Writ of Quo Warranto for President Trump.”[26]

In the wake of the mandamus petition, the 2020 is Nullified website declared, “Pima County BOS learns they are not in office lawfully and are about to hold unlawful elections for 2022.  They were handed a copy of the peoples Mandamus that was submitted to the AZ Supreme court.”[27]

Of interest here is that, despite the Arizona Supreme Court rejecting these activists’ petitions, 2020 is Nullified’s language claims that the Pima County BOS has learned that “they are not in office legally” and are “about to hold unlawful elections for 2022.”

The apparent assumption that its documents carry the weight of decided law, independent of the courts, dovetails with a Posse Comitatus-influenced network of far-right sheriffs claiming that a county sheriff can overturn state and federal laws, and governments, at odds with its far-right “interpretation” of the U.S. Constitution.

In addition to bogus ideas of sheriff’s power, some Posse Comitatus activists and their political descendants have argued that far-rightists can form quasi-governmental bodies and/or issue their own pseudo-legal decrees that are binding and enforceable, at times by paramilitary means. In addition to liens against political enemies or bogus checks drawn from fake “legal” victories, Posse-influenced movements have also issued their own “writs of mandamus.”

While CSPOA and PAN have not, to date, moved in this direction, the bogus idea that sheriffs can unilaterally decide the constitutionality of laws, and enforce them as they see fit, is not a great leap from the quasi-governmental Posse strategy.

Daniel Wood, who has also boosted the Qanon conspiracy, has his own ties to far-right sheriffs. In February 2020, Daniel Wood, a petitioner in the 2020 is Nullified-touted “Writ of Mandamus” effort, posted on Facebook that he was “Enjoying the 2nd Amendment Rally with my boys. I got to meet some good Ole Patriots and spoke with Sheriff Lamb. I look forward to working with Sheriff Lamb in the future.”[28] In August 2020, Wood wrote, “I am here at Sheriff Lamb’s calling all patriots event.”[29] Wood would continue to promote Mark Lamb’s exploits on Facebook.[30]

A well-armed Daniel Wood (left) with Protect America Now leader Mark Lamb

Wood ran for U.S. House in 2020 on a platform emphasizing school choice, building Donald Trump’s border wall, and boosting the false claim that mail-in voting “opens up the door to a lot of fraud.”[31]  Wood has also appeared at events with Kari Lake, the election denier running for Governor in Arizona.[32]

Wood’s election denial activism is already framing a continuation of the attack on elections if machines are used. His framing is also set in a far-right, nationalist ideology that sees the country stolen and needing to be “taken back”:

“A time is coming where the People take back this Nation with Righteous Justice!! Praise the Lord for the gifts He has given us! The Declaration of Independence, US Constitution, Bill of Rights, and State Constitutions all gifts from God Almighty! It’s time for the people to apply their God given Rights!…Elections being three weeks away is not a legitimate…excuse to use these machines! If the counties use the machines they are once again violating the State and Federal law! Civil Rights!”[33]

Wood reiterates the distinct strategy, writing, “The election process is the problem everything else ‘Fruad’ (sic) is the distraction!!!!!!!!!! Until Americans figure this out we will continue to have our other problems! Focus on Electoral Due Process and we fix our problems.”[34]

Daniel Wood live-streamed a video from CSPOA’s July 2022 Las Vegas conference – the event at which the group officially kicked off its current “election fraud” campaign.

Noting that he was invited to attend the event, Wood gave a more conspiratorial version of the story, saying, “The machines being uncredited and then falsely certifying the machines; it had to be…done that way in order to hide the, to hide the ballots, the fraudulent ballots.”[35]

Wood claimed that though (he thinks) there is enough evidence to prosecute unnamed individuals possibly, he saw no Arizona sheriffs present and that Mark Lamb had canceled. He concluded, “We should have every single sheriff in the nation here, right now, with this stuff. But, you know, it just goes to tell you that not all of our sheriffs are constitutional, maybe…It’s frustrating.” And he announced that the event would be on Steve Bannon’s War Room and Mike Lindell’s Frank Speech.[36]

2020 is Nullified’s effort is also being promoted by CSPOA North Texas, the 251-member Facebook group and chapter of Richard Mack’s Constitutional Sheriffs and Peace Officers Association (CSPOA).[37]

Another proponent of 2020 is Nullified also has ties to far-right sheriffs. This is Fire Up Freedom, LLC,  a Peoria, Arizona-based fire truck rental and catering company that pushes “patriotism” as a brand and is known for flying a huge “2020 is Nullified” banner from its truck.[38] Run by Michelle and Tony Boulos, Fire Up Freedom has promoted Protect America Now’s “voter fraud” project, Tony posing for a photo with PAN leader Mark Lamb. In late 2020, Fire Up Freedom urged people to “Sign Up” for Ammon Bundy’s People’s Rights network and circulated the far-right paramilitary group’s website URL. People’s Rights also promotes bogus Posse Comitatus-style ideas about sheriffs’ political power.[39]

Tony Boulos (far right) with Pinal County Sheriff Mark Lamb

Enter the America Project

Daniel Wood and associates’ efforts to use a Writ of Mandamus to overturn the 2020 election also ties the Arizona effort to the national election denial outfit, The America Project.

A video by America Project leader Patrick Byrne describes that his group assisted in the filing of the Wood-Steiner-Rice mandamus petition. In the video, Byrne claimed that no election between 2017 and 2021 has been legal and that this logic applies nationwide.[40]

Byrne heads the America Project with Joe Flynn, the brother of the Christian nationalist former Trump national security advisor Michael Flynn.[41] The America Project website describes Byrne as “a Libertarian who believes Election 2020 was rigged.”[42]

The America Project’s Patrick Byrne

Patrick Byrne is the former chief executive of the online retailer Overstock. He gained national attention when January 6 Committee testimony revealed that he took part in a December 18, 2020, meeting in the Oval Office that included Rudy Giuliani, Sidney Powell, and Michael Flynn. Taking place just days before the electoral college certified Joe Biden’s win, Byrne and others advocated that Trump use the National Guard to seize voting machines in key states.[43]

Byrne posted a copy of the “Quo Warranto” document circulated by Daniel Wood to Arizona Red Roots. This Telegram channel circulates “resources from the Conservative MAGA movement in Arizona.” The channel also makes calls to “Turn the GOP into MAGA” and for a “Full forensic audit & canvassing in all 50 states.”[44]And Byrne promoted this as a fundraiser for The America Project, billing the “Quo Warranto” effort as “Potentially UNSEATING ALL STATE ELECTED OFFICIALS!”[45]

Patrick Byrne has been active in far-right circles of late, including attending meetings with far-right paramilitary groups. According to comments Wood live-streamed, Byrne attended CSPOA’s Las Vegas event in July.[46] The January 6 Committee has presented a photograph of Patrick Byrne with Stewart Rhodes, the Oath Keepers leader currently on trial for seditious conspiracy in connection to the January 6 insurrection.[47] Patrick Byrne’s America Project promotes events featuring Michael Flynn, who has his own relationship with CSPOA, having made an appearance on The Richard Mack Show.[48]

If the upcoming election brings election deniers to high office in Arizona, far-right sheriffs could be in a position to do their bidding. And 2020 is Nullified, allied with Act for America, and gaining assistance from the America Project, providing a framework for the wholesale overturn of elections. It is just awaiting a force to impose its “writ of mandamus.”

Elections in the United States are under attack. Given that some 60 percent of Republicans believe Joe Biden lost the 2020 election, there is every reason to think this will continue for some time. And that attack is coming from a far-right social and political movement pushing anti-democratic, authoritarian means to overturn even limited national commitments to upholding civil rights and addressing racial, gender, and economic equality in the United States.


[1] Act for America. ACT Grassroots Driving Arizona Election Security Victory! Email. October 18, 2022.

[2] Act for America. No Voting Machines 2022! Arizona Machine Ban in Every County. Accessed October 19, 2022. Act for America. No Voting Machines 2022!. Accessed October 21, 2022.

[3] Act for America. ACT Grassroots Driving Arizona Election Security Victory! Email. October 18, 2022.

[4] Ansolabehere, Stephen, Burden, Barry C., Mayer, Kenneth R and Charles Stewart. Learning from Recounts. Election Law Journal. Volume 17, No. 2. 2018. file:///C:/Users/crorg/Downloads/elj.2017.0440.pdf; Phillips, Amber. Why hand-counting ballots is such a bad idea. Washington Post. April 8, 2022.; Parks, Miles. Hand-counting ballots may sound nice. It’s actually less accurate and more expensive. NPR. October 7, 2022.;  The Associated Press and AZFamily Digital News Staff. Cochise County Board of Supervisors votes 2-1 in favor of ballot hand count. KOLD News 13.; Act for America. ACT Grassroots Driving Arizona Election Security Victory! Email. October 18, 2022.

[5] Arizona Corporations Commission. Arizona Corporation Commission Swearing-In Ceremony and Election of New Chair. January 5, 2021.; Arizona Corporations Commission. ACC Mission and Background. Accessed October 24, 2022.

[6] Act for America. No Voting Machines 2022! Arizona Machine Ban in Every County. Accessed October 19, 2022; Act for America. No Voting Machines 2022!. Accessed October 21, 2022.

[7] The Moment of Truth Summit. Sherrif Richard Mack Joins Mike Lindell at The Moment of Truth Summit. Frank TV. August 22, 2022.; The AZ – abc 15 – Data Guru. August 31, 2022.

[8] Arizona Corporations Commission. Commissioners Justin Olson and Jim O’Connor Call on Commission to Prohibit Utilities from Requiring COVID-19 Vaccine. Accessed October 24, 2022.

[9] MacDonald-Evoy, Jerod. Finchem wants to ban voting machines and do hand counts, that is ‘unrealistic’. AZ Mirror. October 12, 2022.

[10] MacDonald-Evoy, Jerod. Finchem wants to ban voting machines and do hand counts, that is ‘unrealistic’. AZ Mirror. October 12, 2022.

[11] Arizona Corporations Commission. Meet the Commissioners. Jim O’Connor Commissioner.; Pinnacle Forum. Jim O’Connor: Pinnacle Pulse on Camera.; Pinnacle Forum. The Pinnacle Forum Story. October 27, 2022.

[12] Verlee, Megan. The Mesa County Clerk Tina Peters’ election security controversy, explained. CPR News. February 14, 2022.; Birkeland, Bente and Megan Verlee. Mesa Clerk Tina Peters charged in election security breach. CPR News. March 9, 2022.; Birkeland, Bente and Carla Jimenez. Mesa County Clerk Tina Peters pleads not guilty in election security breach case. CPR News. September 7, 2022.

[13] Act for America. ACT Grassroots Driving Arizona Election Security Victory! Email. October 18, 2022.

[14] Weinberg, Abigail. I Watched the Horrible Tina Peters Documentary Claiming the 2020 Election Was Stolen So You Don’t Have To. Mother Jones. October 11, 2022.

[15] The Sheriff Mack Show. Elected or [S]elected? Constitutional Sheriffs and Peace Officers Association. October 25, 2022.

[16] Stone Simonelli, Isaac. Arizona ‘ground zero’ for extremist, anti-government sheriff movement. Arizona Center for Investigative Reporting. October 20, 2022.

[17] American Perspective #015 (pt 4) with Patriot_Mom007. YouTube.; Act for America. No Voting Machines 2022! Arizona Machine Ban in Every County. Accessed October 19, 2022; Act for America. No Voting Machines 2022!. Accessed October 21, 2022; 2020 is Nullified. Accessed October 19, 2022.

[18] 2020 is Nullified. Accessed October 19, 2022.

[19] 2020 is Nullified. Writ of Mandamus. Accessed October 21, 2022.

[20] 2020 is Nullified. Writ of Mandamus. Accessed October 21, 2022.

[21] Rayana B. Eldan, Brian Steiner and Daniel Wood v. Arizona Secretary of State Katie Hobbs. In the Supreme Court of Arizona. Affidavit of Complaint Petition for Redress by Writs of Mandamus. October 21, 2021.

[22] Supreme Court of Arizona. Daniel Wood et al v. Mark Brnovich et al. Order. No. CV-22-0217-SA. September 8, 2022.

[23] Daniel Wood et al v. Mark Brnovish et al. Arizona Supreme Court. Case No. CV-22-0217-SA. August 31, 2022.

[24] Supreme Court of Arizona. Daniel Wood et al v. Mark Brnovich et al. Order. No. CV-22-0217-SA. September 8, 2022.

[25] Supreme Court. State of Arizona. Re: WE THE PEOPLE ex rel. v.    GOVERNOR DOUG DUCEY et al. No CV-21-0114-SA. May 19, 2021; Ruelas, Richard. Arizona Supreme Court ends case of voters who want to toss elections, put themselves in office. AZ Central. May 11, 2021.; Wood, Daniel and Josh Barnett. Quo Warranto Filed in Arizona Supreme Court. May 7, 2021.

[26] Wood, Daniel and Josh Barnett. Quo Warranto Filed in Arizona Supreme Court. May 7, 2021.

[27] 2020 is Nullified. Accessed October 19, 2022.

[28] Wood, Daniel. Facebook. February 20, 2020.

[29] Wood, Daniel. Facebook. August 1, 2020.

[30] Wood, Daniel. Facebook. Search for “Lamb”. Search done October 28, 2022; Steck, Em, McDermott, Nathan and Christopher Hickey. The congressional candidates who have engaged with the QAnon conspiracy theory. CNN Politics. October 30, 2020.

[31] Romero, Randee. U.S. House, District 3: School choice, illegal immigration top issues for Daniel Wood. Cronkit News. October 19, 2020.

[32] Steck, Em and Andrew Kacyzynski. Trump-endorsed gubernatorial candidate appears with Nazi sympathizer and QAnon-linked activists at campaign events. CNN Politics. November 8, 2021.

[33] Wood, Daniel. Facebook. October 18, 2022.; Wood, Daniel. Facebook. October 16, 2022.;

[34] Wood, Daniel. Facebook. September 22, 2022.

[35] Wood, Daniel. Facebook. July 12 2022.

[36] Wood, Daniel. Facebook. July 12 2022.

[37] CSPOA North Texas. Facebook. August 7, 2022.

[38] Fire Up Freedom., Accessed October 26, 2022. Fire Up Freedom. Facebook. February 11, 2022.

[39] Fire Up Freedom. Facebook. December 4, 2020.; Fire Up Freedom. Facewbook. July 26, 2022.; Fire Up Freedom, LLC. Articles of Amendment to Articles of Organization. Arizona Corporation Commission. September 1, 2021.

[40] The America Project. BREAKING: The America Project Helps File 2020 Election Lawsuit in Arizona. September 1, 2022.

[41] The America Project. About Us. Accessed November 2, 2022; Wehner, Peter. The Desecrations of Michael Flynn. The Atlantic. October 25, 2022.; Smith, Michelle R. How Michael Flynn goes local to spread Christian nationalism. AP News. February 23, 2022.

[42] Smith, Michelle R. How Michael Flynn goes local to spread Christian nationalism. AP News. February 23, 2022.; The America Project. About Us. Accessed November 2, 2022.

[43] Scott, Eugene. Who is Patrick Byrne, former Overstock CEO and election denier?. Washington Post. July 13, 2022.; Anderson, Chris. Ex-Overstock CEO: Mark Meadows was present at wild White House meeting about seizing voting machines. Herald-Tribune. July 14, 2022.

[44] Arizona Red Roots. Telegram. Accessed November 2, 2022; Arizona Red Roots. Forwarded from Patrick M. Byrne (Patrick Byrne). May 7, 2021.; Wood, Daniel and Josh Barnett. Quo Warranto Filed in Arizona Supreme Court. May 7, 2021.

[45] Patrick Byrne. EXCLUSIVE VIDEO! Arizona: Quo Warranto Filed In Supreme Court Potentially UNSEATING ALL STATE ELECTED OFFICIALS! Accessed November 2, 2022. Smith, Michelle R. How Michael Flynn goes local to spread Christian nationalism. AP News. February 23, 2022.; The America Project. About Us. Accessed November 2, 2022.

[46] Wood, Daniel. Facebook. July 12 2022.; Shuhan, Matt. Far-Right Sheriffs Mull Schemes To Surveil Voters At Election Conspiracy Theory Event. Talking Points Memo. July 14, 2022.

[47] Anderson, Zac and Antonio Fins. Jan. 6 hearing highlights coordination by Florida Oath Keepers, Proud Boys leaders. Tallahassee Democrat. July 12, 2022.; Jan. 6 Committee Hearing – Day 7 Transcript. Rev.

[48] The Sheriff Mack Show. Talking with THE General Flynn.; The America Project. Events. Accessed November 2, 2022.

Chuck Tanner

Author Chuck Tanner

Chuck Tanner is an Advisory Board member and researcher for the Institute for Research and Education on Human Rights. He lives in Washington State where he researches and works to counter white nationalism and the anti-Indian and other far right social movements.

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