Skip to main content
Tea Party Nationalism

Endnotes 201-280

By October 20, 2010February 22nd, 2019No Comments17 min read
[201]. “Tea Party Radio Network Rocks” email from to supporters, February 28, 2010.

[202]. “Tea Party Radio Network Rocks” email from to supporters, February 28, 2010.

[203]. “Family Retreat w/ Pastor John Weaver 29 Aug 10am” 1776 Tea party, Meetup web page, August 2009,

[204] “Family Retreat w/ Pastor John Weaver 29 Aug 10am” 1776 Tea party, Meetup web page, August 2009,

[205]. “Pastor John Weaver Endorses Ray McBerry,” SCV Today website, undated, accessed August 10, 2010,

[206]. Devin Burghart, unsigned, “Identity Super Conference,” Midwest Action Report, May 1998, 1; Devin Burghart, unsigned, “Exposing the Christian Identity Super Conference,” Midwest Action Report, May 1999, 1.

[207]. John Weaver, “The Sovereignty of God and Civil Government,” British Israel Book Room and Book Catalogue, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, n.d.

[208]. “Controversial Patriot-Militia Rock Band Headlines Tea Party Event in Nation’s Capital,” Lady Liberty’s Lamp website, July 5, 2009,

[209].”Pokerface – Revolutionary American Nationalist Rock,” Folk and Faith Website, June 28, 2007

[210]. Michael Collins Piper, “Face Off at Rutgers,” American Free Press, March 27,2006, ; “White Supremacist Band Poker Face Rocks for Ron Paul,” Vanguard News Network Website, December 12, 2007,

[211]. Susan Brubaker (salthawkmom), “Patriot Feed Post,” Tea Party Patriots Website,

[212]. Jason Linkins, “California GOP Decries Anti-Semitic Tea Party Activism,” Huffington Post website, April 21, 2009,

[213]. “Action Alert,” American Family Association, April 20, 2009; American Family Association Tea Party organizers list, accessed May 30, 2009, ; Leonard Zeskind, “Race, Republicans and the Opposition to Obama,” September 14, 2009, Institute for Research & Education on Human Rights website, https://irehr.orgindex.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1:tea-parties-race-republicans-and-the-opposition-to-obama&catid=10:analysis&Itemid=23.

[214]. “American Family Association,” People for the American Way, Right Wing Watch, accessed August 30, 2010,

[215]. United We Stand Contributors, “American Family Association of Kentucky founder behind Louisville Tea Party,” United We Stand website, June 19, 2010,

[216]. “Tea Party for Americans Coalition,” Stormfront website,

[217]. Whites Forward, “re: Over 500 Tea Parties Already Planned for July 4,” www.stormfront.or/forum/showthread.php?t=597871&page=4, accessed June 22, 2009.

[218]., “re: Over 500 Tea Parties Already Planned for July 4,” www.stormfront.or/forum/showthread.php?t=597871&page=2, accessed June 22, 2009.

[219]. Council of Conservative Citizens website,

[220]. “CofCC receives warm welcome in Crystal River, Florida,” Council of Conservative Citizens Website, September 15, 2009,

[221]. Bill Rolen, “The Post-Egalitarian Age,” The Citizens Informer, April-June 2009, p. 4.

[222]. Billy Roper, “Statement from Billy Roper,” July 23, 2002 6:38:20 pm Central Daylight Time.

[223]. Billy Roper, “Campaign Trail Report,” White Revolution website, May 14, 2010,

[224]. “Billy Roper’s Page – Patriotic Resistance,” ResistNet website, page cached by Google,, last access June 27, 2010.

[225]. Judy L. Thomas, “Tea Party rejects racist label, but concerns remain,” The Kansas City Star, July 16, 2010, p1; Wendy Suares, “Tea Party Battles Allegations of Racism,” KARK 4 News, July 20, 2010.

[226]. “The NorthCoast Militia,” Tea Party Patriots website, now removed, accessed March 3, 2010,; The page used to read, “The NorthCoast Militia Lorain County Ohio Keith Ten Eyck Tea Party Patriots Lorain County  A small group of sportsmen and women that started out just hanging in my garage on Thursdays for a few hours drinking beer and complaining. In Sept we decieded [sic] to make some signs and get outside. So we came up with a scary name. Our location of choice is the offices of Sherrod Brown and Betty Sutton. Located on Broadway Ave. @ St. Joseph’s in Lorain OH. 3/1/2010.”

[227]. “Ten Reasons Why We Need a State Militia Now,” Pocatello Tea Party website, February 1, 2010,

[228]. Richard I. Mack and Timothy Robert Walters, From My Cold Dead Fingers: Why America Needs Guns, Rawhide Western Publishing, October 1994; Richard I. Mack and Timothy Robert Walters, Government, God and Freedom: A Fundamental Trinity, Rawhide Western Publishing, May 1995, p. 62.

[229]. North Star Staff, “North Valley Patriots Tea Party Group to host Sheriff Richard Mack,” Merced Sun-Star, January 17, 2010,

[230]. The event was also publicized on the FreedomWorks Tea Party website; “Sheriff Richard Mack Speaking in Silver City,” March 1, 2010,

[231]. Tammy Blair, “The County Sheriff: America’s Last Hope,” Tyler Tea Party website, May 10, 2010,

[232]. ” Liberty defender, Sheriff Richard Mack, lecturing in Sarasota!!” Freedom Watch: The Original Sarasota 9-12 Tea Party Meetup webpage, August 10, 2010,

[233]. Mike Vanderboegh, “To all modern Sons of Liberty: THIS is your time. Break their windows. Break them NOW,” Sipsey Street Irregulars website, March 19, 2010,

[234]. Christina Bellantoni, “Strange Scene: 10 Arrested as Tea Partiers Heckle Police,” Talking Point Memo, November 5, 2009; Felony Complaint, United States of America v. Charles Alan Wilson, Western Washington District Court, Case No. MJ10-55, April 5, 2010; Justin Elliott, “Man Charged with Death Threats Apparently Attended Tea Party Protest Targeting Murray,” Talking Points Memo, April 7, 2010; Philip Rucker, “Former militiaman unapologetic for calls to vandalize offices over health care,” The Washington Post, March 25, 2010.

[235]. William Douglas, “Tea Party protesters scream ‘n**ger’ at black congressman,” McClatchy Washington Bureau, March 20, 2010.

[236]. Sean Cockerham, “Tea Party Express leader rejects message, not messenger,” Anchorage Daily News, July 20, 2010,

[237]. “Tea Party Nation Statement on Racism,” Tea Party Nation email to supporters, July 19, 2010.

[238]. “A Message to all members of Tea Party Nations,” email from Tea Party Nation to supporters, July 19, 2010; “Tea Party Endorsements” email from Tea Party Nation to supporters, May 21, 2010.

[239]. Jenny Beth Martin, “Why is the NAACP and the Liberal Media Accusing Tea Party Patriots of Being Racist?” email to Tea Party Patriots members, July 21, 2010.

[240]. Krissah Thompson, “As NAACP aims to stay in national debate, charge of tea party racism draws fire,” Washington Post, July 14, 2010.

[241]. James Edwards, “Racism, Schmacism,” Political Cesspool website,

[242]. Media Release, “National Tea Party Federation Rejects NAACP Accusations of Racism,” National Tea Party Federation Website, July 14, 2010,

[243]. Media Release, “Effective Immediately, Tea Party Express is No Longer a Member of the National Tea Party Federation,” National Tea Party Federation Website, July 17, 2010,

[244]. “National Survey of Tea Party Supporters,” The New York TimesCBS News Poll, April 5-12, 2010, question 72; Newsweek Poll conducted by Princeton Survey Research Associates May 21-211, 2008, cited at

[245]. Prof. Christopher Parker, principal investigator, “2010 Multi-state survey on Race and Politics,” University of Washington Institute for the Study of Ethnicity, Race & Sexuality, March 2010.

[246]. “National Survey of Tea Party Supporters,” The New York TimesCBS News Poll, April 5-12, 2010, question 62.

[247]. “National Survey of Tea Party Supporters,” The New York TimesCBS News Poll, April 5-12, 2010, questions 46, 47, and 52.

[248]. Amy Kremer, “Welcome Y’all,” Southern Belle Politics website, October 9, 2008,

[249]. Amy Kremer, “Congress Certifies Electoral College Vote,” Southern Belle Politics website, January 8, 2009,

[250]. Pam Farnsworth (tnfiredup) on, June 4, 2009, 7:10am.

[251]. Pam Farnsworth (tnfiredup) on, June 4, 2009, 8:44am.

[252]. Charles the pathfinder, “Start discussion!!!!!!!!!!,” Tea Party Nation website, April 25, 2010,

[253]. “Growing Number of Americans Say Obama is a Muslim,” Results from the 2010 Annual Religion and Public Life Survey, Pew Research Center for the People & the Press, August 19, 2010.

[254]. “Defining ‘Islamophobia,'” University of California, Berkeley Center for Race & Gender website, undated, accessed August 14, 2010,

[255]. “Speakers,” Tennessee Tea Party Coalition website, undated, last accessed August 30, 2010,

[256]. Eric Schelzig, “TN tea party won’t drop speaker for anti-Islamic views,” The Tennessean, May 21, 2010, .

[257]. “Register Today for the National Tea Party Unity Convention,” website, August 18, 2010,

[258]. Darla Dawald, “Resources, Links, Partners, Like-Minded Organizations,” ResistNet website, October 6, 2009,,_Links,_Partners,_Like-Minded_Organizations.

[259]. “Resistnet [sic] Radio Welcomes Pamela Geller – Atlas Shrugs,” Blog Talk Radio website, June 9, 2010,

[260]. F.V. Pennese, “IT’S TIME TO TAKE BACK OUR COUNTRY NOW!!!,” ResistNet website, December 9, 2009,

[262]. Pamela Geller, “ABC News Discovers… The Muslim President! BHO: ‘The United States is One of the Largest Muslim Countries on the Planet,” Atlas Shrugs website, June 2, 2009,

[262]. “Memo to media: Pamela Geller does not belong on national television,” Media Maters for America website, July 14, 2010, .

[263]. Pamela Geller, “How could Stanley And Dunham have delivered Barack Hussein Obama Jr. in August of 1961 in Honolulu, when official University of Washington Records Show Her 2680 Miles Away in Seattle Attending Classes that Same Month?” Atlas Shrugs website, October 24, 2008,

[264]. Pamela Geller, “Forecast: Blood on the Streets,” Atlas Shrugs Website, June 23, 2010,

[265]. Donna Baker, reply to “The Horrors of Illegal Immigration,” Tea Party Nation Website, August 3, 2010,

[266]. Robert Matheson, reply to “The Horrors of Illegal Immigration,” Tea Party Nation Website, August 3, 2010, .

[267]. Tea Party Nation, “The Horrors of Illegal Immigration,” email to Tea Party Nation members, August 3, 2010.

[268]. Tea Party Nation, “Stand with Arizona on August 15,” email to Tea Party Nation members, August 5, 2010.

[269]. Brian Baldwin, “Arizona Support,” email to Tea Party Patriot Supporters, July 29, 2010.

[270]. Dale Robertson, comment to “Should The Tea Party Founder Dale Robertson, Run for Texas Governor,” 1776 Tea Party Social Networking Website, February 27, 2010,; Those “Non-Negotiable Core Beliefs posted on the 1776 Tea Party Website have since been changed to read, “Illegal Aliens Are Here Illegally,” and “English As Core Language Is Required,” 1776 Tea Party Website, undated, accessed, August 18, 2010,

[271]. “Tea Party Stands With Arizona” email from to supporters. April 27, 2010.

[272]. “Tea Party Says STOP Amnesty… Illegal Alien Violence On the Boarder [sic] & in Every American City,” email from to supporters. April 28, 2010.

[273]. Kenneth P. Vogel, “Tea partiers air doubts about Armey,” Politico, March 25, 2010,

[274]. Kenneth P. Vogel, “Tea partiers air doubts about Armey,” Politico, March 25, 2010,

[275]. “Dick Armey of Freedomworks[sic] Supports AMNESTY for Illegal Immigrant,” Americans for Legal Immigration PAC (ALIPAC) website, March 2, 2010,

[276]. Roy Beck, “Dick Armey Stuns Tea Partiers With Open-Borders Advocacy (see his immigration record here),” NumbersUSA website, March 15, 2010,

[277]. Lazerus1974, “Illegal Aliens,” Tea Party Patriots website, May 20, 2010,

[278]. Jason Leverette, “Illegal Anchor Babies,” ResistNet website, August 8, 2010,

[279]. As Tea Party Express is donor, rather than membership based, and because Tea Party Express donor data for this period was not available, the faction was not included in this comparison. Unemployment data, United States Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Unemployment Rates for Metropolitan Areas, Monthly Rankings, Not Seasonally Adjusted, Jan. 2010” Bureau of Labor Statistics Local Area Unemployment Statistics website,

[280]. The Figure shows a plot of the percent of TP members in the population of each city against unemployment. As this indicates, it is a fairly flat line, meaning that visually there appears to be little linear relationship between the two variables. (This line is the best fitting line through this data – it minimizes the sum of the squared deviations from the mean, basically it is the line for this data that best reduces the overall distance between it and the data points and is the best overall visual summary of the strength and direction of relationship here).


This is confirmed by the Pearson’s r correlation coefficient of 0.08. Basically, this is a very weak correlation if it indicates any correlation at all. Correlation coefficients measure the degree of linear association between two variables, ranging from +1 a perfect positive correlation to -1 for a perfect negative correlation.


Though interpretations vary somewhat by authors, taking a conservative approach, anything less than a coefficient of about .19 is considered to be a very low to non-existent correlation. A more intuitive interpretation is to square the value, which produces the coefficient of determination, or r-squared. This is called a proportional reduction of error statistic and basically indicates what percent of variation in Y (% TP members) is explained by the variation in X (% unemployment). This isn’t really explanation in a causal sense, but rather if I know X, how much does this reduce my error in predicting Y. In this case, squaring 0.083 gives 0.0069. That is, if we know the percent unemployment in a city our error in predicting the percent of Tea Party members in the city population is reduced by 0.0064 — this is pretty much nothing. So, from the magnitude of the relationship it is safe to say that there is very little if any relationship between unemployment and online Tea Party membership, at least as evidenced in this data.


This conclusion is strengthened by the fact that Pearson’s r is easily skewed by outliers. The high values, for instance, skew the line upward and make the correlation coefficient greater than it would be otherwise. For instance, just removing Nampa, FL (the highest outlier) reduces the correlation coefficient to 0.072 (and that’s just removing one data point from a pretty sizeable sample. Removing the next 4 would make it go down even further because they are all above the line).


We also tested whether this correlation coefficient was statistically significant. In short, because the data was not randomly selected, normally distributed and the variances of the two variables were not equal Pearson’s r can give a biased measure of statistical significance. We did some other data transformations to make the data fit these requirements, but these did not produce normal distributions. To employ a proxy for statistical significance, we used a randomization method that (1) mixes up the original data so that it is randomly distributed; (2) does this 10,000 times and calculates a new correlation coefficient each time; and (3) creates a population of correlation coefficients from this data that is randomly distributed — i.e., in which there is no relationship between unemployment and tea party online membership. This data can then be used to answer the following question: how likely are you to see a correlation as strong as the value found in the original data (0.08) if in fact there is no relationship between unemployment and Tea Party membership? This is the p-value. In this case, the p-value was 0.0741. This indicates that 7.4% of the values in this distribution are larger than the value we got (see the figure below for where our value landed in the distribution). Generally anything above 0.05 is rejected a “statistically non-significant.” Basic this alpha level (the 0.05) is a measure of how willing you are to risk concluding that there is a relationship between the variables when in fact there is none. Generally social scientists says will risk this in 1/20 cases. In this instance (p= 0.0741) we would get our coefficient (r=0.083) 1/13.5 times in a population with no relationship between these two variables. In social science lingo, you would conclude that you cannot reject the null hypothesis of no relationship between the variables at the 0.05 level.


However, this is one of those cases where statistical significance does not really tell us that much about the data. If in fact the p-value was 0.0001, I would still be confident concluding there is little if any relationship between unemployment and Tea Party membership because the magnitude of the relationship (r=0.083) is so small as to be sociologically insignificant.


We also tested to determine the impact of removing further outliers. Dropping out the highest 7 outliers reduces the correlation coefficient to 0.014 and raises the p-value to 0.3982. This means that the correlation coefficient in the first test I ran is inflated by the impact of a few outliers and that there is an even greater chance that you could get this coefficient when there is no relationship between unemployment and Tea Party membership. The resultant graph shows that the line is even flatter than in the first analysis.


One caveat regarding this statistical outcome: the conclusions that can be drawn from it are strongest for the data set on which it was based. We can confidently say that there is no meaningful relationship between these variables across these 372 cities. It is much less clear how well this data can be extended to inferences about the entire population of the 8000+ cities in the Tea Party membership database for the period or the entire population of cities across the United States. Since this dataset is based on cities for which the Bureau of Labor Statistics had unemployment data on, it is likely that this is a set of cities that is larger in population than the whole population.


Summaries of the data:

summary (tp$perunemp)#summary information for unemployment across these cities

Min. 1st Qu. Median   Mean 3rd Qu.   Max.

5.00   9.00   10.00 10.65   12.00   22.00

> summary(tp$permemb) #sumamry information for percent Tea Party members across the cities.

Min. 1st Qu.   Median     Mean 3rd Qu.     Max.

0.001893 0.039350 0.059780 0.076340 0.092840 0.924200​​​

Devin Burghart and Leonard Zeskind

Author Devin Burghart and Leonard Zeskind

More posts by Devin Burghart and Leonard Zeskind